William Clark

  • En avril 1803, les etats-unis achètent à la france, pour quinze millions de dollars, la province de louisiane, soit un territoire qui s'étend de la mer des antilles à la frontière du canada.
    Et la jeune amérique découvre du même coup que son destin est désormais à l'ouest - et peut-être même dans ce far west inconnu dont le nom sera bientôt sur toutes les lèvres. quelques mois plus tard lewis (vite rejoint par clark) atteint le poste " français " de saint-louis sur le mississippi. leur mission, telle que vient de la définir le président jefferson : tenter de trouver une voie navigable entre le grand fleuve et le pacifique et nouer au passage des liens d'amitié avec les tribus indiennes de rencontre.
    Etablie par michel le bris à partir des documents originaux, cette édition en deux volumes des légendaires journaux de lewis et clark a été saluée par toute la presse.

  • We live in a sea of seething microbial predators, an infinity of invisible and invasive microorganisms capable of setting up shop inside us and sending us to an early grave. The only thing keeping them out? The immune system.
    William Clark's In Defense of Self offers a refreshingly accessible tour of the immune system, putting in layman's terms essential information that has been for too long the exclusive province of trained specialists. Clark explains how the immune system works by using powerful genetic, chemical, and cellular weapons to protect us from the vast majority of disease-causing microbes-bacteria, viruses, molds, and parasites. Only those microbes our bodies need to help us digest food and process vitamins are admitted. But this same system can endanger us by rejecting potentially life-saving organ transplants, or by overreacting and turning too much force against foreign invaders, causing serious--occasionally lethal--collateral damage to our tissues and resulting in autoimmune disease. In Defense of Self covers everything from how antibodies work and the strategies the body uses to distinguish self from not self to the nature of immunological memory, the latest approaches to vaccination, and how the immune system will react should we ever be subjected to a bioterrorist attack. Clark also offers important insights on the vital role that the immune system plays in cancer, AIDS, autoimmunity, rheumatoid arthritis, allergies and asthma, and other diseases.
    Of special interest to all those suffering from diseases related to the immune system, as well as their families, In Defense of Self lucidly explains a system none of us could live without.

  • Since September 11th, the threat of a bioterrorist attack--massive, lethal, and unpreventable--has hung in the air over America. Bracing for Armageddon? offers a vividly written primer for the general reader, shedding light on the science behind potential bioterrorist attacks and revealing what could happen, what is likely to happen, and what almost certainly will not happen.
    The story opens with a riveting account of a bioterrorism scenario commissioned by the U.S. government. Using this doomsday tableau as a springboard, Clark reviews a host of bioterrorist threats (from agroterrorism to a poisoning of the water supply) and examines not only the worst-case menace of genetically engineered pathogens, but also the lethal agents on the CDC's official bioterrorism list, including Smallpox, Anthrax, Plague, Botulism, and Ebola. His overview of attempted bioterrorist attacks to date--such as the failed Aum Shinrikyo attempts in 1995 in Japan and the Anthrax attack in the US following 9/11--bolstered by interviews with a range of experts--shows why virtually all of these attempts have failed. Indeed, he demonstrates that a successful bioterrorism attack is exceedingly unlikely, while a major flu epidemic (such as the deadly epidemic of 1918 that killed millions worldwide) is a virtual certainty. Given the long odds of a bioterrorist attack, Clark asks, has the more than $40 billion the United States has dedicated to the defense against bioterrorism really been well spent? Is it time to move on to other priorities?
    In contrast to the alarmist fears stoked by the popular media, William Clark here provides a reassuring overview of what we really need to worry about--and what we don't.

  • Books such as Richard Dawkins's The Selfish Gene have aroused fierce controversy by arguing for the powerful influence of genes on human behavior. But are we entirely at the mercy of our chromosomes? In Are We Hardwired?, scientists William R. Clark and Michael Grunstein say the answer is both yes--and no.
    The power and fascination of Are We Hardwired? lie in their explanation of that deceptively simple answer. Using eye-opening examples of genetically identical twins who, though raised in different families, have had remarkably parallel lives, the authors show that indeed roughly half of human behavior can be accounted for by DNA. But the picture is quite complicated. Clark and Grunstein take us on a tour of modern genetics and behavioral science, revealing that few elements of behavior depend upon a single gene; complexes of genes, often across chromosomes, drive most of our heredity-based actions. To illustrate this point, they examine the genetic basis, and quirks, of individual behavioral traits--including aggression, sexuality, mental function, eating disorders, alcoholism, and drug abuse. They show that genes and environment are not opposing forces; heredity shapes how we interpret our surroundings, which in turn changes the very structure of our brain. Clearly we are not simply puppets of either influence. Perhaps most interesting, the book suggests that the source of our ability to choose, to act unexpectedly, may lie in the chaos principle: the most minute differences during activation of a single neuron may lead to utterly unpredictable actions.
    This masterful account of the nature-nurture controversy--at once provocative and informative--answers some of our oldest questions in unexpected new ways

  • Since September 11th, the threat of a bioterrorist attack--massive, lethal, and unpreventable--has hung in the air over America. Bracing for Armageddon? offers a vividly written primer for the general reader, shedding light on the science behind potential bioterrorist attacks and revealing what could happen, what is likely to happen, and what almost certainly will not happen.
    The story opens with a riveting account of a bioterrorism scenario commissioned by the U.S. government. Using this doomsday tableau as a springboard, Clark reviews a host of bioterrorist threats (from agroterrorism to a poisoning of the water supply) and examines not only the worst-case menace of genetically engineered pathogens, but also the lethal agents on the CDC's official bioterrorism list, including Smallpox, Anthrax, Plague, Botulism, and Ebola. His overview of attempted bioterrorist attacks to date--such as the failed Aum Shinrikyo attempts in 1995 in Japan and the Anthrax attack in the US following 9/11--bolstered by interviews with a range of experts--shows why virtually all of these attempts have failed. Indeed, he demonstrates that a successful bioterrorism attack is exceedingly unlikely, while a major flu epidemic (such as the deadly epidemic of 1918 that killed millions worldwide) is a virtual certainty. Given the long odds of a bioterrorist attack, Clark asks, has the more than $40 billion the United States has dedicated to the defense against bioterrorism really been well spent? Is it time to move on to other priorities?
    In contrast to the alarmist fears stoked by the popular media, William Clark here provides a reassuring overview of what we really need to worry about--and what we don't.

  • Death, for bacteria, is not inevitable. Protect a bacterium from predators, and provide it with adequate food and space to grow, and it would continue living--and reproducing asexually--forever. But a paramecium (a slightly more advanced single-cell organism), under the same ideal conditions, would stop dividing after about 200 generations--and die. Death, for paramecia and their offspring, is inevitable. Unless they have sex. If at any point during that 200 or so generations, two of the progeny of our paramecium have sex, their clock will be reset to zero. They and their progeny are granted another 200 generations. Those who fail to have sex eventually die. Immortality for bacteria is automatic; for all other living beings--including humans--immortality depends on having sex. But why is this so? Why must death be inevitable? And what is the connection between death and sexual reproduction?
    In Sex and the Origins of Death, William R. Clark looks at life and death at the level of the cell, as he addresses such profound questions as why we age, why death exists, and why death and sex go hand in hand. Clark reveals that there are in fact two kinds of cell death--accidental death, caused by extreme cold or heat, starvation, or physical destruction, and programmed cell death, initiated by codes embedded in our DNA. (Bacteria have no such codes.) We learn that every cell in our body has a self-destruct program embedded into it and that cell suicide is in fact a fairly commonplace event. We also discover that virtually every aspect of a cell's life is regulated by its DNA, including its own death, that the span of life is genetically determined (identical twins on average die 36 months apart, randomly selected siblings 106 months apart), that human tissue in culture will divide some 50 times and then die (an important exception being tumor cells, which divide indefinitely). But why do our cells have such programs? Why must we die? To shed light on this question, Clark reaches far back in evolutionary history, to the moment when inevitable death (death from aging) first appeared. For cells during the first billion years, death, when it occurred, was accidental; there was nothing programmed into them that said they must die. But fierce competition gradually led to multicellular animals--size being an advantage against predators--and with this change came cell specialization and, most important, germ cells in which reproductive DNA was segregated. When sexual reproduction evolved, it became the dominant form of reproduction on the planet, in part because mixing DNA from two individuals corrects errors that have crept into the code. But this improved DNA made DNA in the other (somatic) cells not only superfluous, but dangerous, because somatic DNA might harbor mutations. Nature's solution to this danger, Clark concludes, was programmed death--the somatic cells must die. Unfortunately, we are the somatic cells. Death is necessary to exploit to the fullest the advantages of sexual reproduction.
    In Sex and the Origins of Death, William Clark ranges far and wide over fascinating terrain. Whether describing a 62-year-old man having a major heart attack (and how his myocardial cells rupture and die), or discussing curious life-forms that defy any definition of life (including bacterial spores, which can regenerate after decades of inactivity, and viruses, which are nothing more than DNA or RNA wrapped in protein), this brilliant, profound volume illuminates the miraculous workings of life at its most elemental level and finds in these tiny spaces the answers to some of our largest questions.

  • We live in a sea of seething microbial predators, an infinity of invisible and invasive microorganisms capable of setting set up shop inside us and sending us to an early grave. The only thing keeping them out? The immune system.
    William Clark's In Defense of Self offers a refreshingly accessible tour of the immune system, putting in layman's terms essential information that has been for too long the exclusive province of trained specialists. Clark explains how the immune system works by using powerful genetic, chemical, and cellular weapons to protect us from the vast majority of disease-causing microbes-bacteria, viruses, molds, and parasites. Only those microbes our bodies need to help us digest food and process vitamins are admitted. But this same system can endanger us by rejecting potentially life-saving organ transplants, or by overreacting and turning too much force against foreign invaders, causing serious-occasionally lethal-collateral damage to our tissues and organs. Worse yet, our immune systems may react as if we ourselves are foreign and begin snipping away at otherwise healthy tissues, resulting in autoimmune disease. In Defense of Self covers everything from how antibodies work and the strategies the body uses to distinguish self from not self to the nature of immunological memory, the latest approaches to vaccination, and how the immune system will react should we ever be subjected to a bioterrorist attack. Clark also offers important insights on the vital role that the immune system plays in cancer, AIDS, autoimmunity, rheumatoid arthritis, allergies and asthma, and other diseases.
    Of special interest to all those suffering from diseases related to the immune system, as well as their families, In Defense of Self lucidly explains a system none of us could live without.

  • Comprised of all-new, exclusive interviews with Jets players, head coaches, and those closest to the organization, Sack Exchange is not only an eye-opening account of the Jets from this time, but also of the National Football League as a whole.

    The New York Sack Exchange was the nickname given to the New York Jets defensive line of the early 1980s, consisting of Mark Gastineau, Joe Klecko, Marty Lyons, and Abdul Salaam.

    Examined are such topics as the beginning of the Jets-Dolphons rivalry, the controversial firing of head coach Walt Michaels and hiring of Joe Walton, the team's relationships behind the scenes, the emergence of Joe Klecko, the rise and fall of Mark Gastineau, steroid use among the Jets and in the NFL, the legendary Shea Stadium as well as never-before-heard stories and insight into the legacy of Joe Namath.

  • The evaluation of thyroid nodules by fine needle aspiration (FNA) is one of the most challenging tasks in all of cytopathology. A cytologist must understand the clinical presentation of thyroid diseases, their defining histopathologic and cytopathologic features, and even the intricacies of patient management. Drs. Clark and Faquin have provided a valuable framework for cytologists learning (and continuing to learn) this exacting discipline. Org- ized around a practical algorithm, the authors lay out a rational and concise approach toward acquiring the necessary skills for the cytologic diagnosis of thyroid nodules. The first edition, published in 2005, was a very welcome addition to the cytology literature. This new edition, with updated terminology for reporting thyroid FNA results, builds on the success of their approach. Why are we examining such challenging specimens? Clearly, the clinical need is there. Over 50% of adults have one or more thyroid nodules. Surgical excision of all nodules is certainly neither practical nor desirable. Enter FNA, a minimally invasive cellular sampling method that has proven to be a highly useful screening test for thyroid cancer. Because of it, thousands of patients with a benign diagnosis are spared unnecessary surgery every year, and those with cancer are reliably triaged for appropriate therapy.

  • The existence of a unique kind of immune cell - the killer lymphocyt- which destroys other cells in a highly specific manner, has fascinated immunologists for almost half a century. How do these cells, whose precursors have lived in communal harmony with their host, decide that some of their cohabitants must die? And how do they kill them? The definition of killer lymphocytes came from discovery of their roles in a wide range of in vivo phenomena such as transplant rejection, virus infection and its related immunopathologies, and anti-tumor responses. Yet for the most part almost everything we know about these cells has come from studying them in vitro. They have yielded their secrets slowly and reluctantly. To understand fully how they work, geneticists and immunologists had to unravel the major histocompatibility systems of vertebrates, a long and torturous road that provided some of the darkest hours of immunology. The search for antigen-sensing receptors on both T cells and NK cells was scarcely less frustrating. And the holy grail of ce- mediated cytotoxicity - defining the mechanism by which killer cells take down their adversaries - sorely tested the ingenuity, patience and mutual good will of laboratories around the world. These questions have now largely been answered. But do we really understand these cells? We can tame them to a large degree in transplant rejection. It may yet turn out that we can harness their immunotherapeutic potential in treating viral and malignant disease.

  • A practical advantage for entry-level fraud examiners with start-to-finish casework Fraud Examination Casebook with Documents provides critical practice for students and new CPAs; criminal and insurance investigators; and attorneys seeking additional guidance on real-world fraud investigation. With five cases that include over 100 pages of documentation, this guide helps you put your conceptual knowledge to work as you conduct full-length Fraud Examinations from predication through report. Short instructional narratives guide you through tools like horizontal and vertical analysis, report writing, and other important tasks, while Excel templates streamline the process and kick start your investigation. Multiple-choice questions help you gauge your understanding and practical mastery, while expert guidance throughout prompts you to draw on your existing knowledge and apply it to casework. With a focus on asset misappropriation and financial statement fraud, these cases provide highly relevant experience for real-world practice. Learning concept isn't always enough to do the job effectively; "knowing" is different from "applying," yet few practical resources exist for new and aspiring fraud examiners-until now. This book provides the much-needed practice that helps examiners polish their skills, with expert guidance every step of the way. Conduct actual Fraud Examinations Perform horizontal and vertical analyses Review checks and decode debit card transactions Examine adjustments to electronic records Perform simple forensic data analytics Vouch to/from documentation Write complete Fraud Examination reports Prepare court-ready schedules and audio-visuals As you work your way through the cases, you'll develop the skills and instinct experienced examiners rely upon every day. You'll hone your analytical edge and master the essentials of report writing, leaving you fully equipped to conduct a thorough investigation and deliver your findings clearly, comprehensively, and authoritatively. Fraud Examination Casebook with Documents is a vital resource for students and new fraud examiners seeking a practical advantage in real-world skills.

  • The new edition adds a chapter on multiple linear regression in biomedical research, with sections including the multiple linear regressions model and least squares; the ANOVA table, parameter estimates, and confidence intervals; partial f-tests; polynomial regression; and analysis of covariance.
    * Organized by problem rather than method, so it guides readers to the correct technique for solving the problem at hand.

  • Imaging in Endocrinology will provide endocrinologists and radiologists of all levels with an outstanding diagnostic imaging atlas to aid them in the diagnosis and management of all the major endocrine diseases they are likely to encounter.In fu

  • Cross-disciplinary and critical in its approach, The SAGE Handbook of Housing Studies is an elucidating look at the key issues within the field.
    It covers the study of housing retrospectively, but also analyses the future directions of research and theory, demonstrating how it can contribute to wider debates in the social sciences. A comprehensive introductory chapter is followed by four parts offering complete coverage of the area:

    Markets: examines the perception of housing markets, how they function in different contexts, and the importance of housing behaviour and neighbourhoods
    Approaches: looks at how other disciplines - economics, geography, and sociology - have informed the direction of housing studies
    Context: traces the interactions between housing studies and other aspects of society, providing context to debate housing through issues of space, social, welfare and the environment.
    Policy: is a multi-disciplinary and comprehensive take on the major policy issues and the causes and possible solutions of housing problems such as regeneration and homelessness.

    Edited by leading names in the field and including international contributions, the book is a stimulating, wide-ranging read that will be an invaluable resource for academics and researchers in geography, urban studies, sociology, social policy, economics and politics.

  • À la découverte des «lézards terribles». Quand vivaient les dinosaures ? Quelles étaient les espèces les plus redoutables ? Comment ont-ils disparu ? Les dinosaures sont divisés en deux groupes principaux : les saurischiens et les ornithischiens. Un chapitre à part est consacré aux reptiles marins et volants qui vivaient à la même époque.

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